Canadian Journal of Pesticides & Pest Management

(ISSN: pending) Open Access Journal

Review
1 Potato Development Centre, Agriculture, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Wicklow, New Brunswick, Canada
2 Division of Plant Pathology, Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India,
3 Division of Plant Pathology, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Regional Station, Kayankulam, India,
4 Division of Plant Quarantine, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, ICAR, New Delhi, India,
5 Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India,
6 Department of Food Production, The Faculty of Food and Agriculture, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago,
7 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Science, Dalhouise Universty, Halifax, NS, Canada,
8 A&L Biologicals, Agroecological Research Services Centre, London, ON, Canada,
* Correspondence: , Cell: +1-226-973-6140
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Can. J. Pestic. Pest Manag. 2019, 1(1); doi: 10.34195/can.j.ppm.2019.05.001
Received: 21 Jan 2019 / Revised: 15 Mar 2019 / Accepted: 2019-03-29 / Published: 2019-06-03
Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) include bacteria isolated from rhizosphere, phyllosphere, marine, rock surface, and from different ecosystems. PGPB enhance plant growth by promoting nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, and production of phytohormones such as indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins, polyamines, nitric oxide, and stress-mitigating enzyme viz., 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Further, they protect plant health through the synthesis of antibiotics and hydrolytic enzymes and induction of resistance in plants. Conspicuously, the mixtures of PGPB strains have been reported for their synergistic action in enhancing plant growth and protection. Due to their wide range of properties in maintaining crop health, PGPB can be an integral component in sustainable crop production practices. The effect of PGPB has been demonstrated successfully against many plant diseases and pests affecting crop cultivation. PGPB are also used in wastewater treatment and soil conservation. The current review discusses the mechanisms of action of PGPB and their usefulness in pest and disease management practices. Full article
Research
1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, 1044 Zaria, Nigeria,
2 Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia,
3 Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia,
4 Department of Soil and Water, College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq,
* Correspondence: , Cell: +60-389474864
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Can. J. Pestic. Pest Manag. 2019, 1(1); doi: 10.34195/can.j.ppm.2019.12.002
Received: 17 Jun 2019 / Revised: 19 Dec 2019 / Accepted: 2019-11-25 / Published: 2019-12-20
The present study investigates adsorption–desorption of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)—a residue of glyphosate herbicide—by sandy soil added with cow dung or rice husk ash. Adsorption study was conducted using different concentrations of AMPA in 0.01 M CaCl2. Desorption study followed immediately by adding 0.01 M CaCl2 solution without any AMPA. The concentration of AMPA in both studies was analysed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector. The result revealed an increase in adsorptive removal of AMPA from the soil due to the addition of cow dung or rice husk. The isotherm data of AMPA adsorption by control and amended soils best fitted the Freundlich model (r2 ≥ 0.701). The Freundlich’s constant (KF) for AMPA was highest in the soil + rice husk ash (7.268 mg g−1), followed by cow dung amended soil (5.692 mg g−1) and then control (4.906 mg g−1). The 1/n coefficient for AMPA in both soils was >1, indicating cooperative adsorption. However, the results also showed that soil applied with cow dung and rice husk ash had respective increases of 4.22% and 1.784% in AMPA desorption compared to the control. Therefore, the addition of cow dung and rice husk ash can increase AMPA mobility in this soil making it susceptible to degradation or groundwater contamination. Full article
1 General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Lattakia, Syria,
2 Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria, (A.N.); (I.D.I.)
* Correspondence:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Can. J. Pestic. Pest Manag. 2019, 1(1); doi: 10.34195/can.j.ppm.2019.12.003
Received: 21 Mar 2019 / Revised: 19 Dec 2019 / Accepted: 2019-11-26 / Published: 2019-12-24
A survey of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) infection in some important crops in the Syrian coastal region was made. Samples showing leaf curl and yellowing symptoms were collected from 19 regions during the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons (311 mixed samples and 1244 individual samples). Triple antibody sandwich ELISA (TAS–ELISA) was used to detect TYLCV, whereas tissue blot immunobinding assay (TBIA) was used to detect TSWV. The results of TAS–ELISA and TBIA showed the presence of the two viruses in all visited regions, causing single or mixed infections (26.04% and 32.79% assingle infections by TSWV and TYLCV, respectively, and 14.14% as mixed infection). The highest rate of TSWV infection was 50% in Setkheres region, and that of TYLCV infection was 54.54% in Yahmour region. The infection rate of TSWV in tobacco was 47.45%, and that ofTYLCV in pepper was 51.31%, whereas the rate of mixed infection in tomato was 25.45%. This is the first report of TSWV infection in grapevine (6.66%) and Ocimumbasilicum (16.66%) and of TYLCV infection in Phaseolus vulgaris (27.02%) in Syria. Full article
1 Unité de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et Environnement, Département de Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 04BP0320 Cotonou, Bénin, (S.A.); (A.-F.L.)
2 Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Dassa-Zoume, Université des Sciences, Technologie, Ingénierie et Mathématiques, Dassa-Zoume, Bénin,
3 Centre Commun de Mesures, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale Dunkerque, France,
* Correspondence:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Can. J. Pestic. Pest Manag. 2019, 1(1); doi: 10.34195/can.j.ppm.2019.12.004
Received: 31 Aug 2019 / Revised: 19 Dec 2019 / Accepted: 2019-12-03 / Published: 2019-12-24
Pesticides are a class of chemical substance that can destroy pests and other unwanted organisms. When sprayed by the farmers on their crops against pests, pesticides can also have an adverse effects on human health. Determination of pesticide residues in human blood is one of the methods used to evaluate their exposure. Despite pesticides being used by farmers in Benin, there has been no data on the levels of organochlorine (OC) and pyrethroid (Pyr) residues in vegetable farmers’ blood that indicate chronic exposure to pesticides. This study therefore investigated the level of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticide residues in vegetable farmers’ bloodin Southern Benin. During October 2017 and January 2018, blood samples were collected from 22 and 20 vegetable and non-vegetable farmers (control group) respectively. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was used to extract OC and Pyr residues from the blood samples. Residues in the blood were quantified using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Data were analyzed with R Statistical Software version 3.4.3. Independencetest X2 was used to establish the relationship between to belong vegetable farmer group and presence of pesticide residues in the blood. The difference are statistically significant when p < 0.01. Among the pesticide residues found in the blood of the farmers and the control group, the concentrations of cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and β-endosulfan were significantly different (p < 0.01). Blood of the vegetable farmers was found to contained OC (β-HCH and β-endosulfan) and Pyr (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin) pesticide residues that they used against pests. These compounds may be responsible for different health problems observed among the vegetable farmers in Southern Benin. Full article

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